Selected Abstracts from the Second Annual Conference on

African Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria

October 2006


Keynote Speaker:  Dr. Gloria T. Emeagwali, Central  Connecticut State University, New Britain

"Triumphs and Tribulations of African Science and Indigenous Knowledge Systems."



Convener:        Professor Olayemi Akinwumi,  Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria


1. Conceptualising Issues related to Science and African Indigenous Systems

Afolabi, Mary A., University of Ibadan , Nigeria


In the development of human knowledge, science has emerged to be one of the greatest 

and most influential fields resulting in its different branches and springing forth a number of 

discoveries. Indeed, the scientific revolution which occurred roughly between 1500 and 1700

 found its foundation in western Europe; and in its development as a field of study, many 

scientists and philosophers have suggested that scientific explanations must be based on universal laws 

which includes observation and experiment; data collection and analysis; and the formulation of

 hypothesis. However, going by the above, it has been observed that African indigenous knowledge 

systems are undoubtedly excluded from the European type ‘science’ of which other parts of the

 world are included.  What could be accountable for this?  Various studies have shown that though 

not popularized and widely acclaimed, Africa indeed employs science in all her indigenous knowledge 

systems. It is in this light that this paper will attempt to deal with the following conceptual issues related

 to science.  What exactly is science?  Why is science commonly attributed to the west and European

 world?  Must science follow rigid universal laws? 



2. Interplay between Divination and Science: Binary Opposition Modes as Ways of Knowing in Africa

Umar Habila Dadem Danfulani, University of Jos , Nigeria 


This paper concerns itself with African divination systems as genuine attempts by human beings to 

find alternatives and options in life for adequate decision-making. The paper will attempt a taxonomy 

of African divination praxis or mantic sciences as logical aspects of African “ways of knowing” as has 

been made explicit by scores of scholars of African divination systems. In constructing a divination 

typology for Africa , the paper will list them along a continuum, from the mechanical to the spiritual 

mediumistic types. Thereafter, the paper will map out the spread of divination systems with sixteen 

basic figures in Africa . The paper will show that divination systems with sixteen basic figures are found

 all over the African continent and that they almost always involve complex mathematical calculations, 

the construction of truth scales and many-digit figures in binary fashion. It will examine the scientific modes

 of the inner operating systems of this category of mantic sciences. The paper will establish the relationship 

between divination systems with sixteen basic figures and binary opposition modes, binary arithmetic,

 quantum physics, digital mathematics and computer science. It will use the Pa divination system of

 the Mupun and Mwaghavul of the Jos Plateau (in Central Nigeria ) as a case study for its empirical 

illustrations. It will conclude that thinking in Africa is indeed not only logical, but scientifically similar

 to thinking in the West.


3. Technology and Social Change in Nigeria : A Theoretical Analysis

Muhammed A. Yinusa; Shade Adekeye,  University of Ilorin, Nigeria; and

 Muhammed Nasiru,  Adeoye College of Education, Oro, Nigeria

Social change has become a major concern in emergent societies and to Nigeria in particular. 

Technology is one of the major causes of social change in the contemporary world. It has transformed 

the course of human history. As technology becomes more complex, a society’s rate of change increases. 

For example, scientists seek more efficient forms of energy; advertisers try to convince consumers that 

a new gadget is a necessity. Early automobile manufacturers understood that cars would allow people

 to travel in a single day distances that had require weeks or months a century before. Today, we can 

scarcely imagine how the computer-based information technology revolution will have both positive 

and negative impacts, opening of new kinds of jobs while eliminating old ones, and facilitating the 

process of information, while compromising personal privacy. Our way of life and behavior are influenced 

by various technologies ranging from kitchen gadgets to automobiles. It is within this context that this 

paper examines the nexus between technology and social change in the Nigerian societies. It is a truism 

that technological revolution in Nigeria has contributed gargantually to the social, economic, and 

political development. In this regard, some theories were employed in analyzing the phenomenon of 

social change in the Nigerian societies. The paper then concludes with the submission that technology 

has really changed the course of Nigerian socio-economic and political history in the 21st century of humanity.

Respect for Indigenous Knowledge: African Science in the classroom.



4. Mary Dillard, African History, Sarah Lawrence College , US.


  With few exceptions, Africanist historians and historians of science have ignored a range of scientific and 

technological developments in Africa . This is because what constitutes “African science” is an epistemological 

question that to date has best been addressed by African philosophers. This paper describes how interdisciplinary 

research in the fields of History of Science and African History can be used to develop introductory courses in 

the History of African Science.  For three years, I have taught a class that has attempted to be a course on the 

history of modern Africa , as seen through the lens of science, technology, and medicine.  This course demonstrates 

that students can be taught to view science and Africa differently and, with time, can start to articulate what a history

 of African science might look like.  In the twenty first century, scientific questions will become some of the most

 important questions that we face. This paper suggests ways that African studies scholars can begin to grapple 

with serious questions about indigenous knowledge and indigenous technologies in Africa , in order to develop

 a more coherent history of African science curriculum.


5. Educated Mosquitoes: Science conceptualizations in rural Kenyan Schools

Rachel Irwin, Green College at the Radcliffe Observatory, UK  

In a country with a nationalized educational system, formal education is not merely a matter of delivering 

a standard syllabus, but rather is produced through the interactions of local conditions and national 

expectations. In this paper, I draw upon fieldwork conducted in rural secondary schools in the Kisii District 

of Kenya in considering the effects of science education on understandings of disease aetiology, with

 particular regard to malaria. Firstly, I assert that there exists a disconnexion between the national 

government and local communities in terms of the curriculum. This is a two-fold problem. Firstly, there 

are political, social and economic barriers to education in this region, including school fee payment, 

as well as high drop-out and absentee rates. That is, rural secondary schools are unable to deliver 

and students are unable to receive the science curriculum as mandated by the national government. 

Secondly, there exist ‘cultural’ barriers. For instance, education in Kisii is seriously impeded on account of l

anguage. Whilst English is the language of instruction, most students do not know it well enough to learn 

to their full capacity. Also, cultural beliefs are often in conflict with those of the government. The second

 part of my paper examines understandings of disease causality, aetiology and treatment as a mediated 

through the secondary school science curriculum. Specifically, I examine conceptualizations of malaria in 

the Kisii District. Here I find a pluralistic view of disease in which both ‘indigenous’ and ‘scientific’ explanations

 exist. Additionally, many people have combined these paradigms to create a hybridized conceptualization 

of the disease. I conclude that the interaction of ‘indigenous beliefs,’ political economic factors, and the

 national science syllabi produce a unique set of understandings with regard to health and disease, and 

with particular regard to malaria. Furthermore, this is also a timely discussion, as President Kibaki has recently

 dismissed his entire cabinet following the referendum on the constitution. Hence, the science curriculum is 

likely to soon be altered.


6. African Epistemology and the Metaphysics of Traditional Medicine

Benedict Michael, Benue State University , Makurdi , Nigeria


The idea of an African epistemology cannot devoid of   African traditional religion. This is because a discuss of  

 African epistemology encompasses the culture, traditional beliefs and the spiritual climate of a people whose

 mode of behavior are in space and time as K.C Ayanwu once argued. The paper examine certain things in 

African culture that could constitute the foundation for an African epistemological studies, attention will 

however be on oratory as epistemological.


7. Grappling with concepts in indigenous technology: The Case of the Pre-colonial 

Metallurgical industries in the Northern Nigerian area

Nuruddeen Abubakar, Nasarawa State University , Keffi , Nigeria


There exists a reasonable corpus of materials on the pre-colonial metallurgical industries of the Northern

 Nigerian area. These materials can be classified into archaeological and ethnographic data. By virtue '

of the inherent limitations of Archaeological materials, we are deprived of the concepts of processes, 

time and measurements employed in the various aspects of the industries. It is only in the ethnographic 

sources that the researcher is availed of these concepts. The researcher is however confronted with an

 array of different localized concepts of processes, and measurements: efficiency, time, quality, quantity,

 space etc. Coupled with this is the scarcity of records of the local units. What obtain are often backward 

extrapolations that do not seem to take cognizance of changes over time. The paper highlights some of

 these. The aim is to stimulate discussion on how to tackle the issues of standards in traditional technologies 

and knowledge systems. This we believe is a recurrent problem in grappling with all aspects of indigenous



8.  Preserving African Indigenous Knowledge Systems: The Intervention of the Multi-Disciplinary Approach

Okpeh O.Okpeh Jnr, Benue State University , Makurdi , Nigeria


The revolution in information technology and the globalisation of knowledge systems worldwide has raise

 new and very pertinent questions regarding the fate of indigenous African knowledge systems. For example,

 against the background of Euro-centric and highly prejudiced views about Africans and their ways of life, 

how do we map out and navigate the vast terrain of African indigenous knowledge systems? Secondly, we

 need to know the extent to which we can claim and assert, unequivocally, the existential reality of an 

‘indigenous’ the African knowledge system. And thirdly, to what extent can we say this genre of knowledge

 is integral to general corpus of human knowledge pertaining the purpose and meaning of existence?  The 

purpose of this paper is to examine these issues within the ambience of the changing contents and contexts 

of African indigenous knowledge systems on the one hand, and the revolution in information technology on 

the other. While advancing a strong case for sustaining the originality, authenticity and functionality of

 indigenous African knowledge systems, the paper explores strategies for preserving this genre of knowledge 

through the instrumentality of the multi-disciplinary approach.




9. African Indigenous Knowledge of Pact Making and its Implications for the modern doctrine of

 Pacta Sunt Servanda in Interntional Law: A Case Study of Pre-colonial Ibibioland, Nigeria  

Joseph R. Bassey, University of Uyo , Nigeria

To some eurocentric writers, the pre-colonial African Societies had no indigenous systems of social control that 

contained any legal elements. These writers strongly contend that African indigenous societies had no law prior 

to the arrival of the Europeans. Some of them have gone to the extent of concluding that “ the greatest benefit 

and that which impressed itself vividly on the memories of most Africans who had experienced the pre-colonial 

period was the relative peace and security imposed by all the colonial governments”. Against these misconceptions, 

the thesis defended here is that the pre-colonial African societies were not in state of anarchy: they had developed 

their indigenous methods and procedures for law making, enforcement and sanction as well as settlement of disputes,

 before the imposition of the so-called “colonial peace”. Using Ibibioland in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria as a case study, 

the paper reveals that one aspect of indigenous law that the people created is the pact. Pact laws were used to prevent

 wars and settle disputes thereby promoting unity and peace amongst the people. Ibibio traditional pact laws directly 

created other laws on war, immunity and asylum. It is the contention of this paper that the Ibibio indigenous pact laws

 contain legal elements that are similar to those in modern international law. Both the Ibibio indigenous pacts and the

 modern international pacts or treaties or agreements are founded on good faith and on the doctrine of

  Pacta Sunt Servanda (i.e. pact or agreement must be honourable or kept). Put different, the pre-colonial 

Ibibio people had developed indigenous laws that can be compared to those of modern societies. Being 

more efficacious than mere paper signing to settle disputes, the Ibibio indigenous pact system is recommended 

for settlement of conflicts in African countries such as Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo.


10. Aladimma: The Indigenous Knowledge System of Conflict Resolution

and Management among Societies in Igboland,

Akachi Odoemene, University of Ibadan , Nigeria

This paper examines and analyses the nature and roles of the Aladimma indigenous (pre-colonial) knowledge 

system of conflict resolution and management among sub-groups of the ethnic Igbo of Southeastern Nigeria. 

It also identifies and discusses the main philosophical and ideological contexts within which this system operates, 

and further assesses the relevance of these principles to the management of modern conflicts in the area. 

Aladimma is a uniquely indigenous democratic, socio-political and participatory institution with a social 

responsibility of keeping sustainable peace and stability within the local community. It thus engages in

 conflict resolution and management efforts among individuals and groups within its operational communities. 

This system also involves ALL segments of the society – irrespective of age, gender, and/or socio-economic status – 

and deals with both inter- and intra-community conflicts on any common concern to the communities. 

The objective of this creative system of grassroots’ peace-making efforts was/is primarily the reconciliation 

of the conflicting parties and the maintenance of the peace, rather than “win – lose” or “winner-takes-all”. 

The result is usually a compromise involving what could be referred to as “give a little, take a little”, 

with emphasis on fairness, substantive justice and restoration of harmony in the society, rather than on 

‘principles of law’ as such. The procedure is also simple and largely informal, without the rigid rules of

 ‘procedure and evidence’. It is anchored on justifiable and equitable network of ideas, which often 

signifies the trend of indigenous dispute resolution and helps the people in their bid to restore peace 

and harmony in the society. Furthermore, decisions of this system gained wide acceptability due to

 public participation. But are the conditions that made Aladimma effective in the past still intact

 to cope with the dramatic socio-political changes experienced since colonial times? How has

 it faired with the challenges of the post-colonial situation?


11. Using Indigenous Knowledge to Strengthen Local Governance and Development in Nigeria

Geoffrey I. Nwaka, Abia State University Uturu , Nigeria  


The economic crisis of the 1980s and ‘90s, and the policy failures associated with the formal government

 system have discredited the African state, and exposed the flaws in the Western ‘external agency’

 model of development imposed from the top. Because of growing concern about widespread

 poverty, inequality and environmental deterioration, there is renewed interest in a new approach

 to development that emphasizes the cultural dimension of development, and the often overlooked

 potential of indigenous knowledge as “the single largest knowledge resource not yet mobilized in 

the development enterprise”. Indeed the International Council for Science, ICSU, acknowledges

 that “traditional and local knowledge systems can make, and historically have made a valuable 

contribution to science and technology”, and urges governments and researchers to “support

 cooperation between holders of traditional knowledge and scientists, to explore the relationship 

between different knowledge systems, and to foster inter-linkages of mutual benefit” This paper 

considers how indigenous knowledge and practice can be put to good use in support of local 

governance and development in Nigeria; how development policies and program can be made 

to reflect local priorities, and build upon and strengthen local knowledge, capacity and organization, 

especially in the vital areas of agriculture and health care, education and natural resource 

management, law review, conflict resolution, and poverty alleviation. Indigenous knowledge 

goes beyond the mere indigenization of the personnel that operate the modern institutions 

of governance, industry and education inherited from the colonial period. The more fundamental 

philosophical and epistemological dimensions of indigenization that would explore, strengthen,

 modify and apply local knowledge have not received the attention they deserve. The World Bank 

has recently published an impressive collection of essays aptly titled Indigenous Knowledge: Local

 Pathways to Global Development. It is in that sense that this paper sees indigenous knowledge 

as a model for rethinking and redirecting the development process, and as a way to involve, 

enable and empower local actors to take part in their own development. The paper concludes 

with some general reflections on the indigenous knowledge movement as an appropriate local 

response to globalization and Western knowledge dominance, and as a way to promote

 inter-cultural dialogue on African development.


12. You Can’t Heal What You Don’t Understand:

Unearthing Early Religious Epistemologies in Pre-Colonial Tanzania

Rhonda M. Gonzalez, University of Texas, San Antonio , USA.    

When early European missionaries disembarked on African shores, they brought with them waves 

of epistemological baggage that broke on the African continent. While European presence in

 Africa unquestionably transcended their endeavors, it was the unleashing of these particular folk, 

whose charge it was to probe and to shape the religious thinking of African people, which set the 

stage for an intellectual exchange that implicated and challenged both Africans and Europeans. 

Those connections, part and parcel of a larger colonial project, had the collateral effect of skewing 

our ability to discern the history of indigenous African belief systems, those that long that pre-dated 

European occupation. Using data derived from comparative historical linguistics and comparative

 ethnography, I bring forth aspects of the epistemological and conceptual frameworks that 

characterized Bantu derived religious knowledge in Tanzania . In so doing, I demonstrate that

 those who comprised the descendants of ancient Bantu peoples held steadfast to deep-seated 

traditions anchored in well-reasoned worldviews. Those traditions, however, were simultaneously 

supple and thus enduring. Using illness as a prism for understanding the epistemology of healing, 

I suggest that we can illuminate and understand that both the metaphysical and temporal 

worlds were essential for efficacious therapies. In their sinuous frameworks there was a dialectic 

process that involved both temporal and metaphysical forces, each of which was necessary 

to reach the desired outcome, wellness.


13. Acquisition, Preservation and Functions of African Verbal Art

M.O Odey Benue State University, Makurdi  

To a very large extent, European colonial rule in Africa blighted almost every aspect of African 

Indigenous Knowledge and creativity even at grass root level. For instance, European written

 script was considered to be the only and perhaps the best form of knowledge while African

\ oral literature/verbal art was relegated to the background and rendered almost insignificant. 

But even long after independence in most African countries, lack of awareness, misrepresentation 

and baseless disdain regarding the African Indigenous Knowledge system continue to persist. 

This is compounded with the current deteriorating economic circumstances in which an average 

African finds himself in the daily struggle for survival. The news and print media, urbanization,

political activities and the search for money have all contributed to the gradual moribund of 

verbal art in contemporary Africa. The paper is anchored around three related issues: Renewing 

efforts in the acquisition and preservation of African verbal art in its splendor for posterity. The 

functions of African oral literature are also re-examined to keep the essence of preserving the 

resources in perspective and create curiosity about grass root knowledge for what the stand 

for. The work concludes with an argument that African Indigenous Knowledge system is unique

 and has something to offer humanity and deserves intellectual property protection and must 

therefore be fostered in our education system and through the process of popular participation. 



14.  Indigenous Information System: Panacea to Cultural Development

J. O. Ibrahim (Mrs), Kogi State University , Anyigba , Nigeria


There is no society without its culture that helps in its organization and sustenance. This culture, 

which is a configuration of institutions and mode of life, embraces knowledge, customs, beliefs,

 and the social organization its people. One of these cultures is indigenous information system

 such as aroko, aale, town criers and other related means. The role this information system 

plays in promoting African cultural values is what this paper is set to discuss. The paper 

also examines the impact of this information system on the implementation of government

 development programs in rural areas. It is discovered that information from this system, 

which is targeted at particular audience, are more memorable and have immediate 

impact on the people. It is therefore a powerful instrument of getting things done.


15. Indigenous Communication Mechanisms in Pre-Colonial Cross River Basin :

 A Case Study of the Nsibidi Otoabasi Akpan, University of Uyo , Nigeria

Communication is the vehicle for the expression of social
activity and civilization and in the process it creates a common pool of
ideas. In addition, it also strengthens the feeling of brotherhood
through exchange of messages that translate thought into actions for the
common good of members of a given society. There is no society without
some means of communication and indeed even animals do communicate as
well. The pre-colonial societies in Africa engaged in several means of
communication in order to facilitate interaction and understanding among
members. In the Cross River Basin , which today is made up of Akwa Ibom
and Cross River States of Nigeria , the people designed and made use of
nsibidi to pass sacred information among themselves. Nsibidi was a coded
sign language, which was understood mainly by members of the several
secret societies like Ekpe, Ekpo, Ekon and Obon in the region. Though not
written, the adherents made use of symbols to communicate. As
all males were statutorily required, once they were of age, to become
members of some or all of the secret societies, it means that the coded
language was mostly used by adults to exchange messages especially when
the societies were at risk or under threats of any kind. The language
still survives till today though in attenuated form. The purpose of this
paper is to examine the particulars and relevance of the nsibidi to the
people of the Cross River Basin and the pattern of its resilient after
years of suppression and near abandonment. The major thesis of the
paper is that the nsibidi language was a credible vehicle of communication
in the pre-colonial Cross River Basin and it is still of value today in
several aspects of the people’s lives like recreation and
entertainment, espionage activities and sources of historical                                                                                                                                                                 reconstruction, to mention a few.


16. The Traditional Mass Media, New Communication and Free Flow of Information

Yakubu Ozohu-Suleiman, Ahmadu Bello University , Zaria , Nigeria.

Mass communication is playing an increasingly important role in knowledge acquisition, 

dissemination and preservation. Central to this role is the unceasing revolution in 

communication technology. In the company of this revolution is the growing 

expectation that the technology might break the barriers and lead to the attainment 

of free flow of information, which underscores the global debate on balanced 

dissemination of cultural knowledge. This paper provides an insight on the complex 

socio-political relationship between the traditional mass media, new communication 

technologies and the free flow of information. How has the traditional mass media 

helped in the achievement of free flow of information? How has the new communication 

technologies addressed the inadequacies of the traditional mass media as to entrench 

or be prospective enough to entrench free flow of information? The paper argues that 

the technologies in themselves can do nothing to entrench free flow of information. 

The problem, the writer hold, lies in the political dynamics and the lingering order of 

mass communication locally and internationally.


17. Religion and Science: The Nigerian Dilemma

Anjov Kahaga Terfa, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.


The development of Knowledge has never taken a linear dimension. Historically, 

religion and science are considered to be the basis for human knowledge, but to

 a wide contradiction of its relationship. Sometimes, it is religion at other times it

 is science. This paper attempts to unveil the dilemma that has existed for many

 centuries between both concepts. It also tries to articulate a path for better

 relationship that will create cordial growth of resources and human knowledge. 

The author concludes that if both concepts are carefully married, it will enhance

 a sincere creation of both scientist and moralist in Nigerian children who are

 leaders of tomorrow. The Nigerian society will also grow and the mutual relationship 

will harness the potentialities of the Nigerian child for effective and efficient 

development and the integration of the nation, which is a long time dream.  

18.  Beyond Islamocentricism: Aspects of Afro-Arabic Indigenous Knowledge System

Sirajudeen, Adam A, Kogi State University, Anyingba, Nigeria. 

Arabic has been one of the indigenous languages in Africa . It is the native tongue of 

places like Egypt , Algeria , Libya , Morocco , Tunisia , Mauritania and some parts of 

  Sudan . The belief in the perception of Arabic as an integral part of Islam is universal. 

Whenever Arabic is mentioned, for instance, the first and perhaps the only thing that

 comes to people’s mind is its link with Islam. Beyond this Islamocentric perception of 

Arabic, Afro-Arabic culture exhibits certain potentialities, which formed the bulk of its

 indigenous knowledge systems. This paper intends to survey a convenient submission of 

the extra-religious potentials embedded in this Afro-Arabic knowledge system. These

 potentials include the use of Arabic in various capacities such as documenting histories

 not only in Arabic language but also in native tongue using Arabic scripts. Arabic

 Numerology, Astronomy and astrology which were common features of the Egyptian

 influence on Arabic as well as dating system innovated by the Afro-Arabic scholars 

using the numerical values of the Arabic phonemes are all encapsulated in the Afro-Arabic

 indigenous knowledge system which were part of its ancient civilization.


19.   Indigenous Knowledge System in Akwa Ibom State : The Role of “Eyei” 

as a Symbol of Social and spiritual practices in pre-colonial Ibibioland , Nigeria

Nkereuwem D. Edemekong, University of Uyo , Uyo-Nigeria.


The pre-colonial Akwa Ibom State like other African Societies had evolved a unique

 scientific and technological knowledge system. The knowledge and the use of plants

 are as old as the history of mankind in the area. A unique symbolograhic system which 

employed symbolic writing (nsibidi) and representation (eyei) in communicating among 

members of exclusive club was evolved. Eyei, which was in common usage, refers to the

 fresh unopened leaves of the palm frond, which can be tied or shaped in different forms 

to convey different messages. As a symbol of traditional diplomatic relations, it was usually 

used to convey special messages from one king to another. The advent of European

 missionaries in the area in the late 19th century and the subsequent oppressive and 

excruciating colonial experience conspired to obliterate the steady progress towards 

universal use of these items. The colonialists condemned these notable initiatives and

 all forms of indigenous knowledge systems as devilish and paganist, hence, not worthy

 of appreciation in consonance with their Eurocentric mindset. They employed brute 

physical force, western education and missionary proselytization to subordinate 

African authority, the values and norms which were expressed in the potency of 

oaths (mbiam), divination, charms, sacred writings, Ekpe Ikpa Ukot, witchcraft 

detection, Ukim Idem, and all forms of symbolisms including eyei. This paper is an

 attempt to examine the role of eyei as a symbol of social and spiritual practices 

in pre-colonial Ibibioland.


20.  African Science and the Conspiracy of the Elite: A Case Study of the Ibibio Traditional Knowledge Systems

Ekong Demson, University of Uyo , Nigeria.   

Ibibioland is an infinitesimal constituent of a region generally written off by euro-centric 

historians as backward and reveling in primitive savagery without contributing anything

 to modern science and technology. But the Ibibio like most African nationalities had for

 several centuries developed and practiced their indigenous sciences and technology.
 Contacts with the Europeans through trade, evangelization and colonization not only 

arrested these developments but also entrenched a neo-colonial legacy of disdain and 

condemnation for indigenous knowledge system. Instead of promoting further research 

and development, the Ibibio elite play Jacob in the glare of Esau’s resonating din, 

dismissing in the fashion of their Western capitalist mentors every indigenous scientific 

and technological progress as quackery, witchcraft, sorcery, illicit and dangerous. 

This study identifies and discusses traditional bulletproof system, gin distilling, lie detection, 

soap-making and Ikon Africana from the stable of endangered Ibibio sciences and

 technology. The elite theory is applied in this study to drive home the predicament

 of wasted knowledge, stifled development and squandered opportunities. The study 

recommends proactive re-orientation, documentation, protective legislations, research 

and development as a way of reversing the status quo.


21. Some Epistemo-Cultural issues on Globalization and the Economic Sciences

 of Localities: Some Nigerian Examples,  

P-J Ezeh, University of Nigeria , Nsukka , Nigeria .  

The paper will draw from the example of Nigeria , which under the contemporary 

democracy has undertaken rapid and extensive pro-free-market 

reforms in line with the current globalization prevailing worldwide. It will argue that 

while co-operation with the diverse societies on the planet is 

imperative it is demonstrably dangerous policy to expect that economic designs 

will produce exactly the same results whatever the society. 

The simple reason is that societies run on dissimilar epistemic and cultural variables

 that, usually, cannot be successfully imposed on others. 

Examples will be drawn from recent economic history to remonstrate that, for example,

 Nigerian economy performed better under a climate of 

cultural relativity. Any international formulation in any social domain, broadly defined 

to include all the conceptual and performative strategies 

that underpin or propel a society must therefore take the indigenous knowledge systems

 into account. Science in the paper is operationalized

 as any body of knowledge that is systematically organized. 


22. Preservation of Resources and Resource Material: Interconnections between 

Library systems and indigenous knowledge  

R.O. Ajetunmobi, Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Lagos , Nigeria


Preservation of resources and resource materials is of antiquity in Africa society. 

The palaces, shrines, markets, royal objects, customs and products of arts and crafts 

are some of the resources and source materials found in traditional African library

 system. These products emanated from indigenous knowledge. A number of issues 

ranging from type of resources, nature, functions, values etc. are yet to be given

 serious academic attention. The indigenous library systems in relation to knowledge 

are little known. The objectives of this study are to; examine the nature of resources

 and resource material in African society; discuss the various methods of preservation 

and assess the relationship between library system and indigenous knowledge. 

The study relies on diligent connection and interpretation of oral and ethnographic data and critical

 examination and interpretation of relics, artifacts and secondary source materials. This study

 promises equipping our knowledge and understanding of indigenous science and knowledge

 system with special emphasis on Yoruba culture area.


23. A case study of clothing, soap and cosmetics among the Erin-Ile people of Kwara – State

Onaolapo Foluso Anna, Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Lagos

One of the main consequences of the slave trade for Africa is in the field of production.  Human

  labour, Africa most valuable source of Wealth were exported to Europe and America .  Large

 number of African farmers and craftsmen were shipped away to work in America plantations, 

 mines and cities.  America and Europe used Africa labour to create wealth and profits.  We 

received in exchange manufactured goods of Europe that further destroyed the local industries. 

 The existing local industries such as cloth making, pot, soap and iron – working failed to expand 

through lack of demand for local products.  It is against this background that this paper focuses.  

The study is to examine constraints in respect of cloth, soap and cosmetic makings among the 

Erin-Ile people and the triumphs of these local industries in spite of the forces militating against 

their stay.  The study relied on primary sources and eyewitness account with limited literature as 

major sources of information.  The study will enrich our knowledge on local industries in the 

community and could be of tremendous help in the study of local technologies in other 

communities.  Above all, local industries are surviving, and imported technologies have 

not been able to totally stamp them out.


24. Indigenous Soap Making Science and Technology among the Oyo-Yoruba in Awe town

Ajayi  E.A. and Kola-Aderoju S.A., Adeniran College of Education, Lagos State, Nigeria

The researchers of this paper felt agitated by the dominance of imported soaps and locally 

produced types with imported license in Nigerian markets. The prevalence of these imported 

soaps suggested especially to the younger generations in Nigerian society that Africans had 

no technology worthy of study except the European ones. The zeal to debunk this erroneous

 notion gingered the researchers into the study of indigenous soap making science and 

Technology among the Oyo-Yoruba in Awe town. Even between the Oyo and her neighbors, 

Awe, a satellite town was known to have displayed decisive artistry in the art of soap making.

 The discussion includes origin, history, development, processes, instruments, and improvement 

over the years, uses and values. The volume and value of trade in the last four years are discussed. 

Suggestions are made towards the improvement of products and increase in the level of production. 


25.  Sources of Knowledge and Resilience of Shem (Cultural Salt) of the Chadic-Speakers of the Jos Plateau

S. U. Fwatshak, University of Jos , Nigeria  

This paper traces the sources of knowledge, describes the processes of production, and justifies 

the resilience of Shem, the cultural/traditional salt of the Chadic-speakers of the Jos Plateau 

highlands. The Chadic-Speakers referred to here are the Mupun, Mwaghavul, and Ngas. 

The purpose is to show why, the cultural communities in discourse continue to produce and

 use shem, despite the fact that they have been introduced to, have access to, and indeed

 have been using for centuries or scores of years other type of salts like Benue Valley and Iodized 

salts, and natron, kanwa, a popular brand of local salt in Northern Nigeria. Using the old but 

relevant “Local Initiatives” school of African colonial economic history in preference to the 

“Block Thesis”, the paper argues that shem has continued to be patronized having survived

 competition from other types of salt not only because of the strength of local initiatives but 

also because of the numerous functions it plays among the cultural groups. The main methodology 

used is that interviews with producers and users. This is supplemented with secondary and

 other types of literature.  


26.  Africa’s Indigenous Technology: Traditional Methods of Palm Oil “Mmanu Production

 in Eastern Nigeria : A Case Study of Igboland”  

E. I Itanyi, University of Nigeria, Nsukka  


The term technology simply put means the scientific devices applied by man to achieve his basic 

necessities of life, which includes, food, shelter and clothing. Fadahunsi (1986:28) looked at 

technology as “a scientific knowledge aimed at satisfying the basic needs and objectives of man. 

To a large extent, the term ‘technology” had been with the Africans, but in a localized dialectical

 form. In our study area for instance, it is referred to as “Nka na Uzu”. Man from the on set has tried 

to survive in the precarious environment he found himself by trying to conquer the environment. 

To achieve this, he developed some culture which manifested more in his production of tools;

 first in inorganic materials like stones and clay and secondly in organic materials like plants and 

animal products. At this stage, we refer to their technology as “Crude” or rudimentary, but this 

gradually and evolutionary transformed and became the bed rock of the modern global 

technology which if well harnessed would lead to sustainable development. For this to be achieved, 

there should be a balance between economic and social development on the one hand, and the

 cultural and ecological adaptability of such development, on the other hand (Okpoko, 1999). 

By indigenous technology (endogamous), we refer to the internally generated methods of learning 

and expressing grass root initiatives in technology (Okpoko, 1999). This may be well expressed in local 

systems of hand manufacture of goods and implements that are mainly made up of wood, clay, stones,

 metals, textiles, Ivory/bones and fibres. This paper is aimed at among other things, expressing and 

exposing one of the main Africans indigenous technology on “traditional method of palm oil ‘Mmanu’

 processing” with a view to elucidating the various traditional techniques involved and bringing to 

lime-light one of the most important indigenous technologies of the Africans towards food production 

economy. In addition, the paper aims at exposing one of the Africa ’s technological ingenuity prior

 to the coming of the white man. It further took into consideration the influence of the westernized 

culture (civilization) and/or modernization on these traditional methods. The paper also sought 

means of improving or harnessing these traditional methods in order to meet up with the high

 demand of palm oil, both domestically and industrially. It further took into consideration the 

roles palm oil could play in improving the foreign exchange earners of Nigeria in general and 

the economic base of our study area; Eastern Nigeria – Igboland in particular.


27. Dynamics in the Indigenous technology of canoe making in the confluence area

Abdullahi, Musa Yusuf, Kogi State University , Anyingba , Nigeria  


Human settlements went through several stages of development. In the confluence area, 

human sojourn pre-dates 500B.C. in this area the people devised several technologies with

 which they exploited their environment (rivers inclusive). The exploitation of rivers Niger and

  Benue and many other rivers in the area was facilitated by the development of canoe. 

The indigenous technology of canoe making dated several centuries. Over the years, the

 technology went through several innovations from large dugouts to the use of Galvanized 

sheet canoes as we have them today. This paper, therefore discuss the ingenuity in the

 indigenous technology of canoe making in the confluence area. 


28.  A Survey into traditional ways of pottery making in Pre-colonial Lafia Area of Nasarawa State

Charles Azgaku, Nasarawa State University , Keffi , Nigeria.  

Man’s ability to manipulate nature and his environment for the improvement of his

 comfort and convenience has been with him for as long as the history of mankind itself. 

In the history of Nigeria , pottery is the commonest and popular craft among the 

different ethnic groups and culture. For example, the 

Naraguta pottery in Jos, Plateau, Nok in Southern Kaduna , Benin , Ife etc. This is 

not an exception in Lafia area of Nasarawa State . This Industry however appeared 

to have gone into slumber as a result of developments in the modern industries. 

The paper therefore is an attempt to see how pottery making was done before

 our contact with the white and the various material use in this process.


29. Africa ’s Indigenous Technology: The Case of Iron Smelting In Igalaland

M.S. Audu, Kogi State University, Anyingba  

The first iron to be used by man was obtained from meteors and the first possessed iron 

as opposed to meteoric iron was obtained during the smelting of copper. This was when 

a spongy lump of a new material was discovered in the remains of a smelting fire. 

In Igalaland, “ikpojo” (ore) is abundantly available, which has made it possible for 

mining and smelting to be carried out on a large scale in the area. For example, 

excavation carried out at Ojuwo Atogu in Idah area led credence to the discovery

 of iron, slog clay, nozzles and furnace walls in the area. This indeed suggested that

 iron smithing occurred in Igala area around C.13th. The focus of this paper is to survey

  Africa ’s Indigenous Technology with specific reference to Iron smelting in Igalaland.


30.  The Sharp Disconnection: A Re-Examination of the place of the

 traditional iron working in Colonial Nigeria

Sade Famose, University of Abuja , Nigeria  

The pre-colonial Nigerian societies formed complex economic systems aimed at sustaining their 

existence. The basic need of any society whether pre-industrial or modern is food for consumption. 

Therefore from the savannah region through the forest belt to the coastal area, agriculture in its 

entirety was the main form of occupation. From the economic concept of comparative advantage,

 it is not out of place to commend the pre-colonial societies for adopting an occupation that their

 natural endowment in terms of soil and climatic conditions made easy. Thus, to an agricultural 

society like these Nigerian societies, smithery and smelting were very important. The pre-colonial 

smelters and blacksmiths serviced virtually all the spectrum of the traditional economy and society.

 It is in view of this and the inability of Nigeria to achieve technological break through in the 21st  

century despite the various policies of technology transfer that this paper aims at re -examining

 the traditional iron and steel sector. The paper concludes that it was the sharp leap from traditional 

to modern society as imposed by colonialism that has made technological break through or

 even acquisition through transfer difficult.



31. Distilling Industry in Pre-Colonial Ibibio Society: A Study of Ufofor (Dry Gin) Beverage

Dominic Akpan, University of Uyo , Nigeria.  


This paper examines industrial production of dry gin in Ibibio society. It reveals that Ibibio 

society like other Nigerian societies in the pre-colonial era had developed independently 

of foreign influence. She possessed industrial, technological as well as scientific knowledge,

 which helped her to develop her society. One of such endeavors was the distillation of Ufofop

 (dry gin). The Process of distillation of Ufofop involved complex scientific processes like the 

tapping of the palm wine, fermentation of the wine, production of the special metal pot,

 the mounting of the industrial equipment and factory, distillation by boiling as well as the

 presentation and marketing. The Ufofop was of superior quality and competed favorably 

with foreign gin imported into the region by European traders.


32.  The Evolution of Indigenous African Architecture: Between Globalization and Socio -Economic Reality

Ishanlosen Odiaua, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University , Bauchi , Nigeria  

Architecture is a visual, three-dimensional expression of cultural identity. Indigenous

 societies in Africa developed building systems based on technologies and materials 

that were suitably adapted to the realities of their geographical

 locations. The increase in trade with the West and the consequent adoption of new

 building materials and technologies from the West have led to 

unsuited developments within the urban landscape. This paper looks briefly at

 adapted indigenous solutions to developing the built environment. 

Within the selection of indigenous architecture, it will examine, in a comparative 

manner, the differences between indigenous African building 

technologies and the new, imported technologies. It also takes a look at how the

 introduction of new technologies has changed and impacted 

the development of African cities from the early 20th century, with regards to

 materials, adaptation to climate and landscape as well as the 

overall impact on the global African society and economy. Finally, it offers 

suggestions as to how, in view of changing lifestyles and the reality of the 

developing continent, better-adapted solutions can be arrived at for future development goals. 


33.How Fire was made and used in Pre-colonial Yil Ngas

Samuel Barde Gwimbe, College of Education , Gindiri , Nigeria  

Any study of the history of science and technology in pre-colonial Africa seems incomplete 

if nothing is said about the production, uses and abuses of energy in its various forms, one 

of which is fire. Even in that endeavor, it is doubtful if in the context of various pre-colonial 

societies, fire was made in the same way, using the same materials and so forth. However 

differences in its uses and abuses might probably have been less dissimilar. A study of the

 making of fire, its benefits and dangers in pre-colonial Ngas society, as attempted in this 

paper, is a humble, and probably unique contribution towards a database on the indigenous,

 pre-colonial history of science and technology in Africa for the 21st century.


34. Triumphs and Constraints in Indigenous Building Materials

Ahmad Hayatuddeen and Umar Faruq Muhammad, Nasarawa State Polytechnic, Lafia

Historical antecedents of building materials have revealed remarkable improvement and

 transformation in the use of building materials which forms man’s unending quest for shelter. 

This developmental transformation has been occurring over the years as a result of the widening

 scope that has to do with the revolution in the construction industry and societal trends. In 

relation to indigenous elements of construction, specifically in Nigeria , various levels of researches

 have been conducted and developed for construction purposes. Some were indeed found to be

 outstanding. While some have left much to be desired. Considerable attempts were made for the 

mass usage and the acceptability of such indigenous processed and manufactured building materials, 

but to no avail. With such apparent success and required improvement, however, much is needed

 to be done, as some limiting factors are constantly brought to bear. The inhibitiveness of these factors 

is systematically examined and laid bare with the primary aim of persuading all the stakeholders in the

 building construction sectors, of the “intrinsic” and salient values contained in the seemingly despised

 indigenous building materials.


35. The Disappearance of Indigenous Technology and Problem of Development

Olufayo Olu-Olu  

This paper examines the consequences of the havoc wrecked on African indigenous technology 

occasioned by the long period of slave trade, ending up in colonialism and the imposition of western 

ideology and values on African development. It highlights the potentialities of Africans, their indigenous

 technologies, and the devastating blow of Africans industrial development, through the imposition of

 western values coupled with modern enslavement in a world of globalization. The paper however made

 suggestions on the possible way out of our present socio-economic woes occasioned by the activities of

 the global North.       



36. Colonialism and the Travails of Indigenous Technology on the Jos Plateau: The Rukuba Example

Amango Kudu, Nasarawa State University , Keffi , Nigeria  

Technology was probably the earliest conscious step taken by man in a bid to subdue his environment and 

exploit its resources for his survival. Among the Rukuba (like any other African society), technology proceeded

 on a chain of unbroken processes, dictated by needs, time, and a rise in human intellect; until the coming 

of the British imperialists. Consequently, this development was arrested, and ultimately distorted beyond 

redemption, via the colonial economic policies. This paper attempts to identify and examine the ways in 

which colonial policies were adopted as counter – measures against the possible growth and development

 of indigenous technology on the Jos Plateau, with specific reference to the Rukuba.


37.Triumphs and Constraints in Indigenous Iron Working Technology in Ngas Land

John Gondyi Longkat, College of Education , Gindiri , Nigeria  


The paper seeks to recapture the processing and techniques of iron working in Ngas land.  The paper

 focuses attention on the iron working technology in Kor, which is about seven kilometers south of the

 headquarters of Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State.  It dwells on the varieties of fuel 

that were used, the digging and process of identifying the iron, the various methods that were used

 in the bellowing and the smiting and smelting of the iron into different tools. The paper also comes 

up with the different tools that were manufactured and traded upon and the various levels of

 sophistication up to colonial domination. It raises the question of continuity in the present

 millennium giving a poser as to whether this ancient technology can give our present generation

 a leap into and the need to harnessing it into our type of technology. Through the use of Video 

recordings the paper tries to capture the past for the future.  

38.Revolutionizing Production of Indigenous Crafts

Mailafiya Aruwa Filaba, Nasarawa State University , Keffi , Nigeria


The crafts’ production logjam in Nigeria since the colonial rule has been much more a policy issue.

 It was ironic that the very African products which attracted the Europeans were not allowed to be 

produced en-mass immediately after the colonial conquest. The post independence governments 

did not deem it fit to revive them, but accepted dependency and consumer-oriented policies that 

further scuttled crafts production. With the activities of the Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) and 

the World Trade Organization pact, indigenous production is further strangulated. However, many

 individuals have persisted with it. They can be encouraged in many ways. To revolutionize crafts 

production needs combined efforts of the government, individuals, cooperatives, corporate bodies,

 institutions and NGOs.



39. Technological Change and its effect on Traditional Religious Beliefs: The Tiv Experience

Mbawaren Magdalyn Aboh, Benue State Teaching Service, Makurdi  

The research was motivated by the need to review traditional beliefs of the Tiv currently undermined by

 the significant impact of technological change. The Tiv now put more emphasis on technology and

 its benefits, resulting in an erosion of traditional values within family and clan structures. The work is

 based on primary sources, including oral interviews with Tiv in positions of leadership, retired elders 

and chiefs, as well as average citizens. Secondary sources include materials from available literature, 

from both methods will emerge historical method. While the phenomenological method of study is 

employed. Research has uncovered a new religion among the Tiv; having abandoned traditional 

beliefs connected with witchcraft and sacrifice, the Tiv have enthusiastically embraced new means

 of production in agriculture, new methods of health care, educational change, developments in

transportation, the media, and industry. Hospitals and other public facilities have greatly improved

 through technology. Abundant harvest have brought new wealth. However, social structures have 

suffered from increased mobility of people, urbanization and similar new opportunities given with the

 introduction of technology. The Tiv are now more materialistic and greedy. It is now much easier to

 approach the Christian God, compared with the traditional high god, Aondo. People know they

 are created in the image of God. The new Tiv religion is more man-centered, although on the basis

 of technological change, women and children are as valuable as men, and have the same rights.

 But the Christian God is not thought to be as demanding as traditional gods and their human 

representatives. Moral standards are lower; pornography and divorce are now more common. 

This thesis makes a contribution by uncovering some of the root causes of serious breakdown in 

Tiv traditional beliefs and social structures during the past decades. By focusing on technology 

as a crucial factor in these changes, the thesis encourages the molding of an ethics of 

accountability in accepting change, since change is an inevitable aspect of ongoing

 development in technology.


40.  Africa : The Crises of the Historical Process and the Problems of Scientific technological development

A.E. Aligwara and Moses Tedheke, Nigerian Defense Academy , Kaduna , Nigeria


The crises of the historical process in Africa is a product of the contradiction between two modes 

of production the capitalist and the pre-capital modes of production. The capitalist mode of

 production, which emerged from Western Europe in the post-enlightenment era, has a philosophical 

underpinning, which is the survival of the fittest. This Darwinian nature of the survival dynamics of the 

species is self-conscious of the role of an advance material culture in snuffing out life in other weaker

 species. Marxian Law on uneven and spasmodic development as an underpinning of capitalism and

 the philosophy of one capitalist kills the other is not just rhetoric’s but the dynamics of the inner logic 

of capital. The fact remains that the emergence of capital in history enhanced the development 

of material science and technology in the now advanced capitalist societies in its ever-pristine 

nature. However, the contact of these societies of advance capital with the rest of the world

 outside the domain of the now advance capitalist countries stiffed the development of science

 and technology in these societies. It is true that the nature of the penetration of capital in  

Africa created the doom for scientific and technological focus of the continent. It is in this

 respect that we intend to discuss the crises of the historical process and the problems of scientific 

and technological development in Africa .


41.                        Africa and the Evolving Modernity

                             Adebusuyi Adeniran, University of Lagos , Nigeria  

Cogent attributes have been advanced to explicate the stunting nature of industrial and 

technological growth on the African continent: colonial hegemonical legacy, social pluralism 

as reflected in the prevalent trado-cultural diversity and outright misapplication of endowed 

resources. This paper observes that contemporary African developmental crises originally

 stemmed from ineffective and greedy political leadership. That Africa distinguishably 

provided the initial guide and lead for the ensuing modernity is no gainsaying.  However, 

other factors could still be adduced as the probable causes of the sordid woes and 

unprecedented level of underdevelopment ravaging the entire continent. This research 

piece unambiguously views these as being secondary since ineptitude on the part of the

 political leadership has been opined as the pivot around which other factors militating

 against Africa 's advancement revolve. Specific cross-regional comparative analyses

 are therefore executed in the study whereby the leadership styles exemplified by the 

political elite in Africa and South Asia are juxtaposed vis-à-vis the nature of their respective 

developmental agenda. While the strength in cultural diversity is being utilized destructively 

by the former; the later capitalizes on it to effect tangible changes in her developmental 

endeavor. In all, the study recommends that for Africa to join the train of the unfolding 

new world , the ephemeral philosophy of greed and self perpetuation among the

 political leadership must be disallowed; so also externally driven policies should be

 discouraged to pave way for the emergence of an endogenous developmental 

agenda which would glaringly put into cognizance the histo-cultural specificities 

of various indigenous communities in programs implementation, just as honored in

 the Asian experience.


42.   The Interconnection between Science and Linguistics

David, O. Stephen, Nasarawa State University , Keffi , Nigeria  

Many scholars past and present think that precision and certainties are not attainable by 

the humanities, i.e. Linguistics or language to be specific. They, therefore, try to look down

 upon the humanities. They think that the hard (natural) sciences are the only ones that 

enjoy a measure of precision and certainty through collection and interpretation of data. 

Recent events in this century have proved this idea wrong. In the present technological 

and scientific age, where many disciplines have titled towards being scientific, it would 

not only be absurd to say that the humanities are not also scientific in their approaches 

but also callous. This paper therefore looks at the interconnection between Science and 

Linguistics with a view to possibly prove that Linguistics is also a science.


43.   The Interconnection between Science and Islamic religion: Human Embryonic development

Hayatudeen Ahmad and Muhammad Usman, Nasarawa State Polytechnic, Lafia , Nigeria  

Many scientific discoveries that researched into the nature of living and non-living

 creatures or the natural phenomena of the human evolution and the earth’s creation,

 which encompass scientific areas such as anatomy, astronomy, astrology, agronomy,

 geology, geography, oceanography and many more have presented remarkable and 

significant facts relating to records found in some religious books of ordinances, years 

before their discovery in the field of science. In this paper, an expository study, expounding 

on findings based on religious facts and data relating to science are examined. Islamic 

religion is taken as a focus, looking especially at the anatomy of human embryonic 

development. It is hoped that the end of the paper, much shall be learned and

 understood that Islamic religion and science are directly interconnected.


44.  Islamic World and Scientific Activity in Historical Perspective

Ayinla Saadu Alanamu, College of Education Ilorin , Nigeria  and 

 Muhammed Yinusa and Muhammad Adeoye, University of Ilorin , Nigeria   

Science is not a native of any society. Rather every society of the world has contributed 

in one way or the other to the development of science in the history of human civilization. 

At the rise of the Islamic Empire, the Muslims were at the forefront in all sciences and 

technology. This period produced more than one hundred men of genius recognized 

as having significantly changed the course of scientific thought. Great advances were

 made by these early Muslim scientists in the fields of botany, astronomy, mathematics,

 physiology, chemistry, medicine, geography, physics and other branches of science. 

Within this understanding, this paper is basically concerned with the literature on the

 history of science in the Islamic world during the medieval period. It rightly highlights 

the outstanding contributions of Muslim scientists. Among the best in the Islamic-Western

 tradition are Ibn-Rushd, al-Khawarizmi, al-Razi, Ibn-Sina, Ibn Baytar, Jabir Ibn al-Hayyan, 

al-Masudi, al-Haytham, Umar Khayam, Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi and Ibn Nafis etc. It

then concludes with the submission that the contemporary Muslim world should 

promote science education and research for the progress of their societies in the modern era.



45. Indigenous Technology and Cassava Processing in Tivland 1900-2000

Alexander Igbawase Ker, Benue State University , Makurdi , Nigeria  

Cassava has become an important crop in Tivland and Nigeria in general. Annual 

production of cassava in Nigeria is put at 17261 metric tonnes per annum with about 

14% of this produced in Tivland. Cassava until recently was not a popular crop amongst 

the Tiv. It was introduced into the area at about the 1920s and has gained prominence. 

Several factors account for this development. They include among others, the degeneration 

of the fertile soil, increase in population and the harsh economic policies introduced by the 

international monetary fund’s sponsored program. This paper examines the origin and 

circumstances under which the crop has become an important item and the technology

 used in processing cassava into different products.


46.  Building Terraces in Agriculture: A feature of Pre-colonial Yil Ngas

Samuel Barde Gwimbe, College of Education Gindiri , Nigeria  

In the effort to eke out their livelihood and guarantee survival in any type of environment,

 mankind has always sought for ways to utilize the resources obtaining within a ‘given’

 environment. The evidence illustrative of the extent to which the Ngas people of the Jos

 Plateau in central Nigeria had taken hold of the environment around them by the end 

of the nineteenth or beginning of the twentieth century abounds in various ways. One

 particular form of that evidence is the technique of building terraces on their farms, 

epitomizing certain knowledge of scientific agriculture in a pre-capitalist setting. This

 paper attempts to recapture the nature of Ngas terrace building and the evidence 

of terraces as a characteristic feature of their environment at the time, as a humble 

contribution to the reconstruction of the history of pre-colonial science and technology

 on the African continent, and the conscious attempt to develop a database on it 

for the 21st century.


47. Indigenous Soil and Water Conservation Technologies for 

Sustainable Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa

Gwaram, M. Y. ( Jigawa State Agriculture Kazaure), Yakasai, M. T. ( Kano State

  University , Wudil), and Mustapha, S.( Abubakar Tafawa University of Technology, Bauchi)  

Indigenous Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) technologies have been practiced for

 decades in sub-Saharan Africa . Hand-dug wells and earth embankments provide

domestic and agricultural water supply, which has enabled farmers and pastoralists 

to exploit the limited potential for farming in the region. Attempts have been made

 in the 1980s and 1990s to introduce modern conservation measures in a wide range 

of settings in the region; yet many of such strategies have failed. As a result farmers 

and pastoralist in the region continue to rely on indigenous technologies, which are

 more sustainable and easily adoptable. This paper examines what is indigenous soil 

and water conservation. Secondly, it attempted to highlight four indigenous soil and

 water conservation technologies from the region. This includes: the trus conservation 

technique from Sudan , which involves harvesting run-off water by constructing low 

earth bunds in the home garden; hills and fluvial terraces from Morocco , which is

geared towards creating cultivable areas by breaking the slope; and stone and 

soil bunds from Ethiopia , which are barriers of stones placed at regular intervals 

along the contours of farms.



48.  Traditional Water Supply Systems in the Pre-Colonial Northern Nigerian Cities: Uses and Sources.

Akpen Philip, Nasarawa State University , Keffi , Nigeria  

During the pre-colonial period, there was an indigenous method of water supply long

 before the British Colonial Authority Later introduced modern form of water supply. 

There were many sources of water supply ranging from rainwater, the seasonal streams, 

major rivers and other sources. The water obtained from these sources apart from rainwater

 was treated in a traditional method to avoid cases of water borne diseases and to maintain

 high-level health standard. In this paper, an attempt will be made to examine both sources

/uses and method use in treating water. 


49.  History of Peasant Farming in Nigeria : The Need for Improved Agricultural Technology in Tivland

Justin Aper, Nasarawa State University , Keffi , Nigeria  

This paper examines the traditional health-care system of the Ejagham. It explores the

 concept, practice, origins and development of the people’s health-care system. 

It reveals that in the earlier times, the health-care system enjoyed considerable 

confidence and patronage of the people. With the advent of the western

 health-care system to the area, the erosion of the people’s confidence in their

 own system began and progressed slowly over the years. Among other things, i

t identifies attitudinal change, large scale deforestation and government policy

 on the health sector as factors posing a serious threat to the traditional health-

care system of the people. It shows that though the people’s system is defective

 in many ways it is effective in the management of several ailments some of which

 have defied orthodox medication. Finally, while raising fears about the possible 

collapse of the people’s health-care system on account of its challenges it offers 

suggestion on how to arrest the dwindling fortunes of the system.


50.   Enhancing Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge for the attainment of food 

security in Nigeria : Case Study of the Ngas, Plateau state, Nigeria

Z.D. Goshit, Nasarawa State University , Keffi , Nigeria


Traditional Farming and Indigenous Knowledge System in Africa

Perspective from the Ikale-Yoruba Experience

Olukoya Ogen, Obafemi Awolowo University , Ile-Ife , Nigeria

This paper argues that the abysmal failure of conventional agricultural techniques in 

Africa has made it critically necessary for Africa ’s agricultural policies to evolve from

 its age-long indigenous agricultural technologies. The study, therefore, highlights several

 instances of the application of indigenous knowledge to Ikale farming system. Essentially

, the adequate utilisation of Ikale’s indigenous knowledge system enabled Ikale farmers 

to become the undisputed regional experts in food crop production in southeastern 

Yorubaland during the period under review. The paper concludes that modern 

approaches to agricultural development in Africa will continue to fail unless they

 take into consideration Africa ’s home grown innovative farming techniques 

and indigenous knowledge system.


51. Traditional Health-Care Among the Ibolos in Kwara State , Nigeria

R.A. Olaoye, University of Ilorin , Nigeria  

Health is important to man. The source through which he gets it does
not matter as long as he is healthy. Thus notwithstanding the existence
of orthodox medicine, average Nigerian does not joke with traditional
health care system. This is so because traditional medicine is deeply
rooted in people’s traditional environment and as such well responsive to
their needs. Indeed, the therapeutic value of traditional medicine is very
widely acknowledged irrespective of the fact that modern health
facilities exist in abundance. It is therefore no surprise that today about
85% of Nigerians patronize traditional health care system. With the
example of the Ibolos in Kwara State of Nigeria , the paper intends to
capture the picture clearly by focusing on critical issues such as the
reasons for patronizing traditional medicine; the therapeutic effects of the
medicine; impact on the public health care and nature of networking
between the traditional and orthodox medicine.


52.  Traditional Health Resources and Medical Practice in Ibibioland:

 Development and Challenges

Dr. Ini A. Udoka, University of Uyo , Nigeria 


Traditional health resources are as old as humankind in Ibibioland. The practice

of traditional medicine in the area is dynamic, innovative and evolving and

 consists of various health practices based on local epistemologies and empirical 

experiences. The use of these resources is not limited to social and economic class. 

Traditional health resources include traditional bone-setting, medicinal plants for

 both human and animals, and spiritual healing. The latter evolved from the 

philosophy that unlike western medicine, which emphasizes physical, biological 

and emotional aspects, traditional medicine, in addition to these aspects, also 

include spiritual elements such as prayers, offerings and auspicious timing of the 

practice. This is the aspect that is mostly considered as superstitious because its 

effects are extremely difficult to explain within the framework of mainstream 

medical science. Currently, traditional health resources and the practice of 

traditional medicine are facing daunting challenges from western medicine 

and Christianity. This paper will capture the evolution, development and 

these challenges and draw example from South India to proffer ways of

 repositioning traditional medical practice in Ibibioland.



53.  Divination and Healing in Tiv

Sarwuan Daniel Shishima, Benue State University , Makurdi  

The paper examines the role of the Diviner in traditional healing. The aim of 

the paper is to examine the importance of Divination and its relationship 

with traditional healing among the Tiv of central Nigeria . In doing this, 

we have used the participant observation method as well as library texts 

as major sources of research. We have discussed among other things the 

concept Divination, types of Divination, Divination in Tiv Beliefs, the role of

 the Diviner in healing and the problem and prospects of Divination in 

African societies and Tiv beliefs. The paper finds that Divination is very 

useful in traditional healing. This is because; there are no laboratories 

in traditional healing systems. The Diviners thus become the laboratories.

 The Divination apart from revealing the causes of illness, explain, explain 

all other inexplicable contingencies of the African person. The only problem 

is that Divination is shrouded on mystery. The paper recommends demystification

 of Divination and the recognition of Divination and Diviners as part of the

 healing system / persons in the healing industry. 


54.     The Owe Traditional Perception on Mental Illness

Paul Akanmidu, University of Ibadan , Nigeria  

The subject of Mental Illness in many societies in Africa is considered an

 esoteric phenomenon. Perhaps, this is borne out of the belief of African

 Traditional Culture, which attributes Mental Illnesses to spiritism and 

metaphysical tendencies. Therefore, the central focus of this paper is 

to give an exposition of Owe Traditional Perception on Mental Illness, 

the causes, scientific nature, inflicting methods and treatments. It 

concludes that Owe perception on Mental Illness is scientifically based.   



55. The Therapeutic Value of Tiv Traditional Medicine

 Joseph S. Gbenda, Ph.D, Benue State University , Makurdi , Nigeria  


Before the development and spread of modern scientific medicine, 

the Tiv of Central Nigeria depended solely on traditional medicine for

 primary health care. Even with the advancement of Western medicine

 today, a lot of people still depend on it. This development points to its 

value in the age of science, technology and globalization. This paper

 examines the indigenous healing among the Tiv taking note of diagnostic

 methods, therapeutic techniques and constraints.


56.  Nutriceuticals: A Renaissance

Moses Z..Zaruwa, Adamawa State University , Mubi


In contemporary times the trend to issues on is shifting from the use of semi-toxic 

substances to those that are deemed safe, and to preventive, rather than 

therapeutic health care. There is a shift from the use of synthetic to natural 

medical products. Countries like China , Thailand , and India have raised 

the acceptance level of their traditional medicines to heights never imagined 

before. The Asian traditional medicines (also called alternative or complementary 

medicine) are now encapsulated, made into tablets, and sold as syrup. Because 

hese products are subjected to modern scientific and analytical techniques, they

 are increasingly receiving the approval of the public and health authorities, thus, 

their classification as alternative or complementary medicines. Africa with its native 

medicines or sciences is fast losing out as a result of our lackadaisical attitudes to 

things that are native or traditional. Therefore, there is need for a reawakening 

our consciousness to these facts. This is because its importance cannot be underscored, 

considering the fact that modern science has opened its doors towards understanding 

the traditional know how surrounding therapy and general health care- especially in 

exploiting nutrition as a basis for preventive health care. 


57.  Neglect of Traditional Medical Care and its consequences on Modern Society: 

A Historian’s Perspective

Akubor, Emmanuel Osewe,  Ahmadu Bello University , Zaria , Nigeria  


Traditional medical care, which is as old as the society itself, is often conceived in our

modern society, as unscientific and (in some quarters) devilish. As a result it has been

 relegated to the background. This focus of this paper is a look at the neglect of the 

aspect of African life and how it has affected the modern day health care system.


58.Women in Traditional Health Care in Africa : Contributions, Problems and 

Challenges from the Life and Traditional Medicare Practice of Late Dokta Halma Mai-Dawa Jinnu

Hannatu Andrew Alahira, Ahmadu Bello University , Zaria , Nigeria  

Health is wealth. Sound health is indispensable for human survival and well being. 

Modern science has made great achievements towards the discovery and cure 

of sicknesses and diseases even though incurable diseases such as AIDS and cancer 

still pose great challenges.  However, very little has been accomplished in the study, 

documentation, synthesis and application of knowledge derived from traditional 

medical knowledge - with its claims to cure diseases that have defined modern 

medicine - and its over all contribution to the well-being of African peoples. This 

is due to erroneous belief in the inferiority of African traditional medicines compared 

to modern medicine. The study of the life and medical practice of Dokta Halima  

Dawa Mai-Jinnu - one of the most renowned woman traditional medical practitioners 

in Northern Nigeria will provide great insight into the popularity, effectiveness, importance, 

problems and challenges of  traditional medical practice and the roles and contributions 

of women in it. Most important is the need to avoid gender blind and gender bias to the 

study of African traditional medicine hence the importance of studying one of the

 leading women traditional medical practitioners. This will provide an important 

step towards a historical and scientific approach to the study, documentation 

and popularization of African traditional medicine and its subsequent integration

 into modern medical practice.


59. Cosmology and Healing: Models for Interpretating African Disease Aetiologies

Umar Habila Dadem Danfulani, University of Jos , Nigeria  

The pursuit of holistic health and well being of society and the individual is a natural quest in the life of Africans.

 This is because for Africans, life is not only worth celebrating, but the whole of life is geared towards the 

acquisition of “the good things in life”. This paper uses African cosmologies as models for interpretation 

African disease aetiologies, that is, the causes/cures of ill health in human society. It thus views African 

cosmology as a determinant factor for understanding disease aetiology. This being the case, the paper

 poses and answers the question: when the cosmology of a people changes, will their disease aetiologies

 also change? The paper examines African concepts of disease and healing patterns. It compares the

 contribution of African medicine as alternative healing method to biomedicine. It further investigates 

and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of both systems as they operate in the plural healing

 systems of Africa . The paper draws a line between the biomedical mono-causal and the African pluralistic 

or divergent approaches to disease aetiologies and healing. Three case studies are comparatively examined 

to illustrate the effect of cosmology on disease and beliefs concerning disease aetiologies. These are the 

cosmologies, concepts of ill health and healing patterns of the Hausa, Kataf and Mupun communities 

in northern Nigeria . The paper will show that indeed when the cosmology of a people changes, their

 beliefs concerning dis-ease and healing will also change. This makes cosmology an indispensable key to

 understanding ill health and healing patterns of 21st century Africans and it reveals current typical African 

attitudes to disease and healing. Consequently, understanding the cosmology and belief system of any 

African people is vital in developing new approaches to healing disease among them.



60.Knowledge, interpretation and practice: The dynamics of traditional healing and local

 knowledge in rural Tanzania

Hanna Werner, Freie Universitat , Berlin , Germany  

The main idea of the research project “The dynamics of traditional healing and local knowledge in Rural Tanzania”

 was first of all to get in contact with local ways of explaining, categorizing and treating illnesses and misfortune. 

So the interest of the researcher was concentrated not only on the knowledge and skills of traditional healers, 

their biographical background, including especially their history of becoming a healer, but also on the dynamic 

aspects, may be the changing issue in traditional healing. For this reason it was quite useful to expand the group

 to be questioned on younger people to see what sources of local knowledge are still contemporary, in which ways

 they’re transferred socially and intergenerationally and in how far they might be the objects of transformation. 

Healing on the one hand and thinking illness over, means building categories, searching for strategies and choose

 between options on the other, seems to be one complex that can serve as a great example for the analysis of 

social dynamics. In the lecture these assumptions will be clearified and underlined with varied empirical examples

 ranging from illness explanatory models, comparisons and cooperation models between traditional healing and

 biomedicine to the concrete ritual practice as it is acted out locally.  

61. Transplanted Beliefs: Ancient Yoruba Healing Traditions in Ethnic American Neighborhoods

 and Western Metropolises

Lisa Rose-Rodriguez, University of CT Medical School , US  

Oshun mori leyeo obibi oro osun oni colalegue iyami loyasousun aye cari pa angara mama

 yeye guansi egale guasi ori osha obini oro guasi ana ayuba maferefun.


Urban planners, Public Health officials and other stakeholders are encouraged to obtain an understanding of the

 cultural relevance of Yoruba derivative religions within the Trans-Atlantic communities. Community leaders, 

academics and bio-medical professionals often overlook cultural memory and ethnicity as a basis for determining

 health care policy and conducting clinical research. Community members who are recognized as healers

 within the Afro-Caribbean communities, who populate large urban areas in metropolises such as New

 York and London should be included in the implementation of prevention programs. The resulting

 collaboration between indigenous healing professionals and allopathic practitioners would result in 

measurably improved health care outcomes for those with limited access to mainstream medicine.


62.   The Traditional Health-Care System of the Ejagham of the Cross River region of Nigeria

Issues and Challenges

Ojong Echum Tangban, Nigerian Defence Academy , Kaduna , Nigeria  

This paper examines the traditional health-care system of the Ejagham. It explores the concept, practice, 

origins and development of the people’s health-care system. It reveals that in the earlier times, the 

health-care system enjoyed considerable confidence and patronage of the people. With the advent

 of the western health-care system to the area, the erosion of the people’s confidence in their own

 system began and progressed slowly over the years. Among other things, it identifies attitudinal change,

 large-scale deforestation and government policy on the health sector as factors posing a serious threat 

to the traditional health-care system of the people. It shows that though the people’s system is defective 

in many ways it is effective in the management of several ailments some of which have defied orthodox 

medication. Finally, while raising fears about the possible collapse of the people’s health-care system on 

account of its challenges it offers suggestion on how to arrest the dwindling fortunes of the system.


63.   The Constraints and Challenges in Traditional Health-Care: The Tiv Perspective

A.Z. Apenda and A.P. Adega, Benue State University , Makurdi , Nigeria


The issue of health preoccupies the mind of the African such that he or she tries as much as possible to

 maintain a peaceful relation with neighbors and deities to avert a disruption of the social equilibrium, 

thus inquiring illness through the wrath of the gods. The paper however examines the constraints and

 challenges in the practice of traditional health-care. It establishes that traditional medicine plays an 

important role in healthcare delivery. However, certain factors such as: Taboos, the advent of orthodox 

medicine, Christian healing masses, absence of laboratories / x-ray machines, loss of interest by youths 

as well as deforestation have posed serious constraints and challenges to an effective traditional

 healthcare service among the Tiv. The paper calls for a re-examination/rethinking on these constraints 

with the view that some illnesses defy orthodox medicine but find a cure traditionally, especially, using 

the traditional Tiv recipes.


64.   Traditional Medical System in Igala land: The Case of Orthopedics

R.A. Olaoye and Attah N. Echa,  Kogi State University , Anyingba , Nigeria


Igala land from the earliest times has responded to the challenge of ill health by developing indigenous 

ethno-medical systems that have endured till date despite western medical science. The knowledge of 

medical properties of weeds, roots, herbs and plants has been the bedrock of indigenous medical science.

 In various communities of Igala land there are doctors known for their specialty in one area of medicine 

or the other. Some are reputed for gynecology, others pediatrics, psychiatry and orthopedics. This paper

 attempts to look at tradomedical systems in Igala land with specific reference to orthopedics. Orthopedics 

is an aspect of medicine, which traditional practitioners have demonstrated high skills and expertise. It is not

 uncommon today that accident victims voluntarily leave established hospitals against expert advice to 

seek for treatment with traditional bone doctors. This work will focus on the organization of tradomedical

 orthopedic home and how delicate problems such as bones are handled. The training of traditional doctors

 and the sciences of their recipes will also be examined.    


65.  Inoculation in Traditional Igbo Medical Practices:

 The Case of Snake-bite in Nsukka Cultural Zone  

Chukwuma C. Opata and Apex A. Apeh, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria


Among the Igbo, inoculation is an old genre of medical practice. Unfortunately, the mere mention
 of the word in the midst of the younger generation of Igbo people, especially in the urban areas 
conjures the image of a western contraption. They forget that the Igbo call it "Ogwu Mgbochi". It is
 then the intention of this paper to see how the Igbo in their traditional medical practices combat the
 incidence of snakebites and limit the agony of victims by rendering the venom largely ineffective
 through inoculation. To achieve this objective, attention would be paid to various versions of the
 origins of the practice, the ingredients, the processes and the rationale for the actions, especially
 the items used. Empirical evidence of the therapeutic potentials of the practice would be cited. 
This work is of importance to the development of indigenous knowledge since the questions raised
 by it would spur medical researchers to look inwards and reduce the spate of dependence on "foreign” 
medications. This done, the labors of our heroes past will not be interred with their bones.

66. African Indigenous Medicine: A Complementary Alternative for the Treatment of Defiant Illnesses

Victor Iyanya, Benue State University , Makurdi , Nigeria


There is no gainsaying that Western education together with its many bye products have so far 

impacted positively on Africa and Africans in numerous ways. Prominent among such impacts 

are in the areas of scientific and technological knowledge. So tremendous have been some of 

these impacts advantage in most areas of science and technology; there exist other salient aspects

 of science (especially medical science) where indigenous African Knowledge has successfully proved

 to be the only, or at least better, provider of remedy for the afflicted. This paper will therefore examine 

critically, with very compelling examples, the possibility of developing such salient areas of African 

comparative advantage for the good of the entire humanity that some scholars have tended to brand 

anything of Western origin as being superior to anything of African indigenous origin. This paper is 

however of the opinion that in as much as the West may have had an overall comparative.  


67.   The Impact of indigenous numeration on the evolution of modern computational techniques

Johnson Oladele Fatokun, Nasarawa State University , Keffi , Nigeria  

The concept of numeration and numeric computations can be dated to the African indigenous 

counting system. The day-to-day activities of every human are strictly linked to the art of numbers,

 manipulation of figures and the so-called arithmetic operations. This paper analyses the relationship

 between the indigenous counting system and the development of modern computational 

techniques from 300BC to date. Thus an appreciation of our native way of thinking and counting 

is brought to the limelight.


68.The Yoruba and Deviant Sexual Behavior

Saheed Aderinto, University of Texas at Austin , US  


The configuration of sexual deviancy is a relative aspect of human behavior. This implies that an act, 

which represents deviant sexual behavior in one culture, might be entertained in another. Amongst 

the Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria , several aspects of social and sexual behavior are prohibited

 because they portray a departure from traditionally accepted ones. The most classic example is

 adultery, which is a form of multiple sexo-social behavior. It seems obvious that the Yoruba understand 

that sexual behavior has to be regulated because of its attendant secrecy and to avoid violating 

customs and convention: a situation, which automatically leads to the provocation of the gods,

 ancestors and other apparitional entities. In this study, we are going to examine traditional Yoruba 

understanding of sexuality and delinquency. Also, a close look at the methods employed in regulating

 or prohibiting “deviant” sexual behavior and punishing sex offenders will be made. This aspect of Yoruba 

culture, which I would call “traditional sexual jurisprudence” is not in consonant with the imported British

 method of criminal justice because of its metaphysical nature. Metaphysical and spiritual methods of 

regulating sexual behavior and punishing of sex offenders therefore contravene the modern scientifically 

accepted procedures of establishing criminal charges. Some of these metaphysical methods include but 

not limited to Teso, Magun, Alasopo, Iba la le.  


69. Methodological Issues in Policing Morality in Traditional Idoma Society: 

The Case of Alekwu and Marriage Institution in Orokam

Adoyi Onoja, Nasarawa State University , Keffi , Nigeria  


The idea of policing morality among the Idoma people is as old as the man’s recognition of the need 

for law and order. This has been conducted through different institutions in the pre colonial period.  

The Alekwu or ancestor as the foremost agency responsible for this is considered supreme and

 capable of ensuring that society’s perception of good and evil is maintained. This is the case 

among the Orokam people found in the Western part of Idoma. However, following the contact

 with colonialism and Christianity and the mass embrace of the latter, the effect was evident in 

the decline of the institution. Apart from the patriarchal conception of morality, its gender

 insensitivity especially as it relate to the sanctity of the marriage institution, verifying the

 authenticity of the numerous claims of those who have been punished for their transgressions 

are all problems that confronts the study. This is situated in the context of the permissiveness

 engendered in the modern religions and the fact that the garb has been removed from the 

fear induced in people of the consequences of violating the marriage institution. This paper 

examines the methodological problems confronting the notion of policing morality especially 

the marriage institution in the context of social change among the Orokam people.



70.  Exploiting Indigenous in Traditional Health Care Systems: Options for integration in 

Modern Health Care Efforts in Nigeria

E.H. Kwon-Ndung and G.R.I. Pennap, Nasarawa State University , Keffi , Nigeria  

Traditional medicine is globally an acclaimed alternative to orthodox medicine and has been in use

 from time immemorial especially in the rural of Nigeria . It also enjoys the recognition and support 

of renowned bodies like the World Health Organization (WHO) and the African Union (AU). These 

bodies and many others have been working towards modernizing the practice. Despite advances

 of modern or orthodox medical practice, traditional medicine provides health care for more than

 60% of Nigerians. The various types of traditional medical practice have as their common denominator 

the fact the everything used is pristine and in consonance with the traditional and cultural practice

s of the respective area. Most of these practices range from medicinal plants, animals inorganic

 residues to incantations and evoked spirits. This paper reviews the relevance of indigenous

 knowledge systems involved in conservation and administration of traditional medical practice in

  Nigeria and possible ways of integrating these practices in present day conventional health 

care services.  


71.   Indigenous Health Care System in Africa : Challenges and Prospects

Ibrahim Waziri Abubakar, University of Abuja , Nigeria  

Inspite of attempts to marginalize indigenous (traditional) health care system since the emergence

 and development of modern science and technology the system has held the line, surviving the

 onslaught and in fact it is even gaining more recognition and acceptance. It has been estimated 

that indigenous medicine accounts for about 80% of medical practice in the world. In Africa it was 

estimated that modern orthodox medicine covers only about 15-30% of the population, the remaining 

70-85% mostly living in the rural areas are served by indigenous health care system. There is the general 

acceptance currently that one of the strategies to improve health care delivery in Africa is to integrate

 the indigenous system into the modern system. For any form of development to be acceptable and

 therefore meaningful to any society, it should be rooted in the society’s culture. While modern medicine 

and health care system has spread to many parts of Africa it is yet to meet the needs of millions. This is 

not only due to the conventional problems like inadequate funding and manpower, and pattern of

 distribution of facilities etc. but also because of lack of acceptability amongst many people in Africa.

 This attitude has to do with cultures. Modern medicine is a product of Western European Civilization,

 the way, manner and circumstances of its introduction and spread in Africa has created suspicion

 hence its low level of acceptability amongst majority in the continent.

African indigenous medical and health care system has much more to offer than many assume. 

What is needed is more political and economic commitment. The paper is discussing the nature 

of the indigenous system, its value and why sub-Saharan African countries should strive to develop 

and integrate it in their health care delivery system.  

72.  The Enigma of Witchcraft as an indigenous Science in Bassa-Ngeland

F.N. Fayam, Nasarawa State University , Keffi , Nigeria  


This paper is a contribution to the debate on Africa ’s Indigenous Science and Knowledge System. 

It focuses on the riddles and puzzles of witchcraft as an indigenous science in Bass-Nge land. 

Witchcraft is pejoratively being regarded as “African Science” because of its apparent 

performance in an African society under the guise of traditional religion. It is a common 

phenomenon in the Bass-Nge society used as a weapon of retaliation, or victimization

 in any state of antagonism between families, peoples and the Bass-Nge society at large.

 Its attendant mysteries and evils in that society, like any other one in Africa has created fear, 

tension and assumed secrete society’s features or occultic dimension in its operations. It is evident, 

that it is a profession in which both sexes in the society thrive especially on matters of religion 

and mysticism. No one wishes to betray too much knowledge of this phenomenon because 

witchcraft is an evil thing, and also an intangible and mysterious thing shrouded in secrecy 

for all but the initiates who can only detect witches and wizards. Paradoxically, the practitioners 

in this secrete society claim they can fly like aircrafts at nights to meeting organized by them. 

It is this claim that bears semblance with the flight of an aircraft that is scientifically manufactured 

that makes the witchcraft profession more terrifying and mysterious as an African science in 

Bassa-Nge land.


73.  Gbagyi Traditional Disease Diagnosis and Treatment: Problems and Prospects

Mailafiya Aruwa Filaba, Nasarawa State University , Keffi , Nigeria  

Gbagyi are famous in traditional medicine and are patronized by their neighbors. This might be

 an ecological issue as the Central Nigeria is noted for tropical diseases. The interpretation, 

diagnosis and treatment of the diseases differ from one medicine-man/woman to the other, 

while the equipment, philosophy and drugs are similar. The rapid urbanization of Gbagyi 

towns and the pervasiveness of the European medicines challenge the traditional approaches. 

However, the efficaciousness of the traditional medicine calls for committed multi-disciplinary 

examination and subsequent publicity beyond the Traditional Medicine Associations.


74.  The Bassa Mystical Powers: An Exploration into African Indigenous science

Maiyaki M. Mejida, Nasarawa State University , Keffi , Nigeria  

The belief in mystical powers by most African and indeed most world communities is hypnotizing. 

This belief has appeared in diverse forms. It has become developed and prominent among the 

Bassa people for a long time. This belief, up to date, defies all orthodox religions such as Christianity

 and Islam. In fact the coming of Christianity and Islam and their accompanied civilization seem 

to have dome little to shake off this belief as faithful of these religions are seen, unceasingly, giving

 patronage to priests and shrine of this mystical powers. What is more, it is generally believed by the 

Bassa that there are mystical powers, which enable people to fly, become immune to bullets, escape

 in an auto crash, walk on fire, assume animal form, cause death of an enemy at a distant place etc. 

The educated and non-educated, the Christian and Muslim in Bassa people believe this. This paper 

is therefore aimed at exploring into this devils den’ and also stimulate researches aimed at reading

 and unveiling the roots of these powers and deduce reasons why the belief continue to flourish. 

More significantly, it tried to explore the indirect and direct impact of this belief on society.  

75.   Cultural Values and the meteoric industrialization of Japan : Lessons for Nigeria

Yohanna Kagoro Gandu, Ahmadu Bello University , Zaria  

Since the industrial revolution that began in groups of islands off the north-west coast of Europe  

over three centuries ago, industrialization has become a world process that embodies symbiosis

 relationship between societal cultural values and technological advancement. In the case of 

  Japan , several theories have been attributed to her meteoric rise as a late starter and a 

non-western industrial power. These theories include but not limited to paternalism, socio-cultural

 values, role played by the Japanese state, macroeconomics, a unique industrial relations regime, 

the labor boss system, the Mazda ‘miracle’ management style, positive political culture, family system, 

and the social character of Japanese society. For instance, the labor boss system is a practice derived

 from a cultural pyramidal structure in which the boss has the additional obligation of caring for workers 

under his jurisdiction. It is obligatory on employers and labor bosses to periodically review and improve 

working conditions of workers. Similarly, the team system of the labor bosses (Kumi system) served as a

 check and balance on the labor boss system. Early theories emphasized Japanese state intervention

 in the national economy. Japan meteoric rise has therefore been attributed to brilliant industrial 

and trade policy involving strong state intervention. The theory of state intervention holds that

  Japan ’s powerful ministry of international trade and industry (MITI) attracted Japan ’s

 best and brightest. Japan ’s bureaucratic structure ensured the development of an

 international competitive industrial sector through deliberate state guided administrative

 policies. Yet other scholars attribute Japan ’s industrial success to company level management, 

an entrenched system of quality control, labor-management cooperation and the practice of

 Research and Development (R&D). Still, others emphasized consistent commitment to education 

and corporate training. Efforts to understand and explain Japan ’s remarkable economic success 

have spawned countless theories. This paper however holds that there is a single most important

 lesson that Nigeria can learn. The paper posits that the phenomenal symbiotic relationship 

between nationalist cultural values and technological innovations kick-start Japan ’s industrial 

dream by transforming production methods and Japanese way of life.   

76.    Obstacles to Industrial Growth: A Comparative Analysis of Japan and Nigeria

Lemuel Ekedegwa Odeh, University of Ilorin , Nigeria  

The main objective of this paper is to examine the tremendous industrial development 

that took place in Japan . This small kingdom was relatively unknown about 100 years

 ago and therefore was of little interest and concern to historians, economists and political

 scientists. Today the situation is radically different. While most Europe’s historic role has tended

 to diminish, Japan has been constantly on the rise. This paper shall examine the reasons for 

the industrial growth from the beginning of Japanese isolation period, the Tokugawa and 

Meji dynasty and what factors were responsible for the industrial development. It is the ultimate

 wish of this paper to relate this industrial development to a country like Nigeria , which has all 

the potentials of industrial growth. One important factor, which this paper has identified 

as largely responsible for Japanese astronomical development was the emphasis, placed

 on education and nationalism. The paper shall examine the Nigerian state with a view to 

understand why Nigeria lacks the will and national patriotism to move the country forward,

 despite the available human and material resources at our disposal. The paper shall conclude

 with some recommendations on how best Nigeria can achieve industrial development

 in the 21st century. It shall also make recommendations on how to achieve an inward policy

 and invariably learn to appreciate our locally made products as against these seemingly

 inferior imported goods.


77.  Reflection on India ’s Development: The Role of Information Technology, Lessons for Nigeria

Jimam T. Lar, University of Jos , Nigeria  

The South Asian State of India and the West African State, Nigeria has a lot in common.

 Historically the two are former British Colonies and have collaborated in the formation and

 sustenance of the non-aligned movement during the cold war era. The two modern states 

are similar in their diverse structure; both are multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multi-cultural. 

They are major players and frontline states in sub-regional and regional relations. Though the

 two nation-states have a lot in common, the point of divergence is in the fact that India has

 departed from a Third World status as it has witnessed rapid development, while Nigeria is by

 all yardsticks regarded as a prominent member of the Third world club. This paper attempts a 

review of the “Indian miracle” with emphasis on the role of Information Technology and its 

impact on India ’s development. The paper discusses all the issues and the factors that

 made Information Technology a major catalyst to India ’s development. We also make

 a critical review of the problems that have come along with the successes. This is to provide 

us with possible lessons for the Nigerian state, appreciating the fact that potentially Nigeria

 has the capacity to lift itself to industrial prominence. The paper is a comparative analysis

 on the two nation-states.


78.    COPYRIGHT: Issues and Perspectives

L.O. Ogiji, Benue State University , Makurdi , Nigeria  

Copyright is an area of intellectual property among other arms such as trademarks and 

patentable inventions. This paper focuses on copyright. It is the right to property though, 

 what is  referred to  as   property is intangible. It is the exclusive right given to authors, 

composers, artists, musicians, photographers and so on. It is the right to protect such 

works from unlawful reproduction, though owners of such a right may on some occasions 

allow others to use their works subject to clearly stipulated conditions. This paper discusses 

the issues surrounding the acquisition of such a right such as the conditions for eligibility

 for such a right, its general nature, who the owner is, the right to sue for its infringement

 and how the right can be transferred. The paper also discusses the types of rights contained 

in the ownership such as moral and economic rights. The aim of the paper is to create more

 awareness on the legitimate use of such property on which rights are reserved and to  

 warn the erring members of the public against its infringement because it has been 

noticed that they either knowingly or unknowingly infringe such rights on  a daily basis.  

79. The Nigerian Movie as a tool for promoting indigenous cultural values

Kayode Animasaun, The Federal Polytechnic, Bida , Nigeria  

Analysis of some Nigerian movies and viewers' responses to questionnaire items showed that some 

movie producers to a great extent are deviating from the Nigerian Film and Video Censor's Board 

guides on what is the norm or positive cultural values of Nigerians. In proposing the Normative 

Self-Regulatory Approach [NoSRA], as a model for packaging and reading the Nigerian cultural

 sensitive movies that would promote indigenous cultural values, the study states the need for

 Nigerian indigenous history to be a major aspect of the theatre and movie curriculum.


80.  Reconstructing Contested Histories using Popular Culture: Ife-Modakeke Conflict 1830-2000

Oyeniyi, Bukola Adeyem, Redeemers University , Nigeria  

Customs and traditions continue to be an invaluable source of information

for historians of the African past. A vast amount of information and

explanations on complex African issues can be found in these aspects of

African culture. This essay deals with the Ife-Modakeke conflict,

especially the determination of the main contending issue in the conflict

i.e. the determination of whether Modakeke was established as a ward in

Ile-Ife or a separate town entire of Ile-Ife.

It examines the function of Yoruba customs and traditions in the

reconstruction of the intention of Ooni Abeweila, the Ife king that

established Modakeke, and the various interpretations given his intentions

during and after his reign. The essay analysis the kind of information and

explanations cultural practices like Ogun-Pipin, (inheritance

sharing), Ile-Mimu, (division or sharing of lands among family members)

Oko-Yiya, (division or sharing of farmland among family members),

Ise-Yiya(division or sharing of occupation among family members),etc,

offered when the event that led to the establishment of  Modakeke

occurred, and in secondary sources, on the Ife-Modakeke conflicts of the

later days. Finally, the essay considers the kinds of questions historians must

 ask in order to make customs and traditions useful tools in explaining,

 reconstructing, and understanding a people's past.


81. Achibavbav (Hurricane) as a Generator in the Pre-Colonial Northern Nigerian Cities: 

Innovations in Lighting System

Akpen Philip, Nasarawa State University , Keffi , Nigeria


Before the introduction of modern lighting system, there were traditional sources of energy harnessed

 during the pre-colonial period. Hurricane for instance was one of the most vital and fundamental form 

of innovations invented to provide light at the pre-colonial Northern Nigerian cities. Apart from this, it 

also provided light at the market places, during festivals, marriage ceremonies and prayer centers as 

well as long night journeys such as long distance trade. Although this form of lighting still exists up to 

date due to its relevance. This paper examined the origin of Achibavbav (horicane) and the technology 

used in producing this generator type of lighting system and the role it played in the cities of

 Northern Nigeria .


82.  Somatoform Disorder among the Elderly: A study in Self Fulfilling Prophecy

Agatha Inweregbu, Nasarawa State University , Keffi , Nigeria  

The journey into life begins with the fusion of a Sperm cell and an Ovum and ends when the individual 

so formed, dies. Old age is one of the stages, which humans pass through in the course of their Journey

 through Life. This paper investigates the effects of beliefs and feelings of individuals in the later years on 

their mental health. Data was collected through a cross-sectional survey on individuals in different 

stages of adulthood. Analysis of the responses on the questionnaire items using simple percentage 

show that older adults, who have a preconceived notion of aging as a negative aspect of human

 development, develop symptoms of somatoform disorders, while those who have positive perceptions

 about aging, age successfully and exhibit positive behavior.


83.   Synthesizing African Traditional Knowledge systems and Performance Arts: The Kwagh-Hir Paradigm

Dennis Teghtegh, Benue State University , Makurdi , Nigeria  

The paper takes a cursory look at the embodiment of performances in Africa as great reserves 

of traditional knowledge systems. Under discourse is the intricate relationship between philosophy,

 economy, religion and sociology of a people subsumed in their performance arts. The Kwagh-hir 

theatre provides the fundamental framework for this discourse. There is also a call for innovations

 in the performance storage as a major means of safe guarding the future in Africa .


Selected Organizers/Facilitators

Professor Olayemi Akinwumi, 

Professor and Chair 

History Department,

Nasarawa State University,



Dr. Adoyi  Onoja,

History Department,

Nasarawa State University,



Dr. C.B.N Ogbogbo,

University of Ibadan,

Oyo State.


Dr.Okpeh O. Okpeh,

Benue State University,



Prof Gwamma,

University of Jos,

Plateau State.


Undergraduate/Graduate Students,

Dept of History,

Nasarawa State University.


Dr. Simeon Agwale,

CEO Innovatiove  Biotech Ltd,





Global Africa Foundation

PO Box  783

New Britain