LEGACY OF AFRICA
Dr. Gloria T. Emeagwali

Professor of History and African Studies,

Central Connecticut State University



Abridged CV of Gloria T. Emeagwali













NORTHEAST AFRICA



HUMAN ORIGINS

A place of origin of humankind according to

most monoregional and multiregional theories of human origin.




WRITING

The first evidence of writing and the world's

first paper- made from papyrus.

Earliest evidence of writing was found by

Gunter Dreyer at Abydos, at U-J- dated 3250BCE.

150 years before the Sumerians.




INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

A principal source of inspiration for Greek

intellectuals such as Hippocrates, Plato etc. Acknowledgements by several Greek scholars

including Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus. See, for example, Biblioteca, The Library of History. 

 Harvard University Press.vol. 1 Book 1.




CALENDAR

The calendar used by most of the world today-

adopted by the Romans and modified by Pope Gregory




RELIGIOUS CONCEPTS

Some concepts possibly derived from the region include

symbol of the Cross, from the Egyptian ANKH; the Concept of Madonna and Child (Auset/Isis and Horus),

and the concept of the resurrection. These issues continue to be hotly debated by scholars.




Ancient Aksum was one of the earliest regions to use coins and

the first to inscribe the sign of the cross on coins

 




MATERIALS

One of the earliest regions to produce steel in the ancient world,

using the innovative principle the hot air blast furnace- Tanzania East Africa (Schmidt, 1997).

A major pioneer in the manufacture of glass in the ancient world.




FERMENTED BEVERAGES

One of the earliest breweries has been found in this region- dated 3500BC




ARCHITECTURE

One of the pioneers in building concepts such as the vault and the colonnade.

We should note the concept of constructing temples sculptured from the living rock

such as the Lalibela Churches of 12th and 13th century Ethiopia.




ENGINEERING

Construction of some of the largest stone structures on record

such as the Giza Pyramid (Egypt) and the Ethiopian stelae of 750 tons, 13 storeys high(Ethiopia) (Connah,2001).




Southern/Central Africa

Mathematics

The world's oldest mathematical objects, Blombos, South Africa, recently re-dated at 100,000 years old (Henshilwood et al. 2004)

Swaziland math artifact, 35,000 years old

The region of origin of the world's languages according to recent scholarship. See Atkinson (2008).



MODERN ART

An acknowledged source of inspiration for Picasso (and Cezanne).




AFRICAN MUSIC

A major inspiration and source for South American music eg the Tango, Rhumba, Samba, Salsa etc.



WEST AFRICA



ENGINEERING

Contribution to world heritage of one of the world's most extensive earthern fortifications

10,000 miles in length Benin Iya, West Africa (Darling, 2008)




NAVIGATION

One of the world's oldest boats- found at Dufuna, Northeast Nigeria - 8000 years old (Breunig,1996).




METALLURGY

The major source of gold for Europe before the conquest of the Americas - from the empires of Ghana and Mali.




RELIGION

Orisa, a religious system from Yoruba civilization,

West Africa from which Santeria and Candomble were derived.

There are about 150 million devotees around the world in Cuba, Brazil, Nigeria (Falola&Genova,2005).




MUSIC

A major source of various musical styles including Jazz, Calypso, and Soca.


CLOTH

A source of numerous contemporary textile motifs and various types of fabric

including kente, adinkra, adire- many of which have been copied and imitated.




AFRICA IN GENERAL

LANGUAGE

Numerous loan words and vocabulary in contemporary English, Spanish and Portuguese.




ECONOMICS

Major contribution to the development of the economies of Western Europe and the Americas

in terms of natural resources and centuries of unpaid labor(Inikori, 2002).




This list was compiled by Professor Gloria Emeagwali,

History Department, Central Connecticut State University,

New Britain, Connecticut, USA.

Revised 2012 (c) All Rights Reserved



African Bibliography and References

www.africahistory.net

Send comments to:

 Dr. Gloria Emeagwali, History Department, CCSU, New Britain, CT06050.